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Water & Hydrothermal resources

Water resources

Fresh water is a renewable resource, yet the world’s supply of groundwater is steadily decreasing, to allocate new water bearing horizons geophysicists use:

  • Electric resistivity and electromagnetic methods (ERT) is commonly used for measuring resistivity of the subsurface to determine water bearing horizons.

  • Remote sensing – for mapping bedrock, water interfaces, and water quality assessment.

  • Seismic refraction helps in mapping top of bedrock, faults, and water table to determine vadose zones.

  • Seismic reflection is used to map top of bedrock, boundaries of faults and fracture zones, and stratigraphy for detection of watered layers.

  • Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is generally intended for mapping stratigraphy and water table; monitoring water content.

Hydrothermal resources

Characterization and imaging of hydrothermal resources are critical for efficient utilization of all types of geothermal resources. They are detected and described with the following geophysical methods:

  • Gravity usually helps to determine the occurrence of heat source that can be reached by meteoric water.

  • Seismic micro-earthquake mapping shows active fractures allowing flow of geothermal fluid.

  • Resistivity and TEM/MT methods are used to reservoir and section mapping.